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    CBase

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    Present simple spelling of third person singular form


    Most verbs
    add -s to infinitive

    work —> works
    sit ----> sits
    stay —> stays


    Verbs ending in consonant + y.
    change y to i and add -es

    cry —> cries
    hurry —> hurries
    reply —> replies


    Verbs ending -s, -z, -ch, -sh or -x
    add -es to infinitive

    miss —> misses
    watch —> watches
    push —> pushes


    Exceptions:

    have —> has
    go —> goes
    do —> does


    Facts or permanent situations

    1. Cows eat grass.
      Cows are eating grass.(X)

    2. water freezes at 0℃.
      Water is freezing at 0℃.(X)

    3. Peter works in an office.
      Peter is working in an office.(X)


    Things that happen regularly, repeatedly or all the time

    1. play football every week.
      I am playing football every week.(X)

    2. Do you go to church every Sunday?
      Are you going to church every Sunday?(X)

    3. My father washes his car once a month.
      My father is washing his car once a month.(X)


    Demonstrations , series of events, commentary


    “I double-click on the next to highlight it and then I click on the delete button…”
    “I am double-clicking…”(X)


    “First I take a bowl and pour a cup of milk into it, next…”
    “First I am taking a bowl…”(X)


    “Gerrard passes to Suarez. Suarez runs with the ball and passes back to Gerrard who shoots and scores!”
    “Gerrard is passing to Suarez…”(X)


    EXCEPTION: Temporary situations


    Where are you going?
    I am going out to a restaurant.
    I am driving my car to the restaurant.
    The waitress is taking my order.
    I am tasting the wine.

    But ,there are a few exceptions:

    I like the wine.
    I am liking the wine.(X)


    EXCEPTION: Temporary situations

    List of common herbs that are ONLY used in the SIMPLE FORM:

    believe
    love
    see
    doubt
    hate
    suppose
    feel
    prefer
    think
    imagine
    realise
    understand
    know
    recognize
    want
    like
    remember
    wish


    This chocolate cake is nice. I want another piece please.
    This chocolate cake is nice. I am wanting another piece please.(X)

    I love it.
    I am loving it.(X)

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    CBase

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    Present simple spelling of third person singular form


    Most verbs
    add -s to infinitive

    work —> works
    sit ----> sits
    stay —> stays


    Verbs ending in consonant + y.
    change y to i and add -es

    cry —> cries
    hurry —> hurries
    reply —> replies


    Verbs ending -s, -z, -ch, -sh or -x
    add -es to infinitive

    miss —> misses
    watch —> watches
    push —> pushes


    Exceptions:

    have —> has
    go —> goes
    do —> does


    Facts or permanent situations

    1. Cows eat grass.
      Cows are eating grass.(X)

    2. water freezes at 0℃.
      Water is freezing at 0℃.(X)

    3. Peter works in an office.
      Peter is working in an office.(X)


    Things that happen regularly, repeatedly or all the time

    1. play football every week.
      I am playing football every week.(X)

    2. Do you go to church every Sunday?
      Are you going to church every Sunday?(X)

    3. My father washes his car once a month.
      My father is washing his car once a month.(X)


    Demonstrations , series of events, commentary


    “I double-click on the next to highlight it and then I click on the delete button…”
    “I am double-clicking…”(X)


    “First I take a bowl and pour a cup of milk into it, next…”
    “First I am taking a bowl…”(X)


    “Gerrard passes to Suarez. Suarez runs with the ball and passes back to Gerrard who shoots and scores!”
    “Gerrard is passing to Suarez…”(X)


    EXCEPTION: Temporary situations


    Where are you going?
    I am going out to a restaurant.
    I am driving my car to the restaurant.
    The waitress is taking my order.
    I am tasting the wine.

    But ,there are a few exceptions:

    I like the wine.
    I am liking the wine.(X)


    EXCEPTION: Temporary situations

    List of common herbs that are ONLY used in the SIMPLE FORM:

    believe
    love
    see
    doubt
    hate
    suppose
    feel
    prefer
    think
    imagine
    realise
    understand
    know
    recognize
    want
    like
    remember
    wish


    posted in English Corner read more
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    CBase

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    Present simple spelling of third person singular form


    Most verbs
    add -s to infinitive

    work —> works
    sit ----> sits
    stay —> stays


    Verbs ending in consonant + y.
    change y to i and add -es

    cry —> cries
    hurry —> hurries
    reply —> replies


    Verbs ending -s, -z, -ch, -sh or -x
    add -es to infinitive

    miss —> misses
    watch —> watches
    push —> pushes


    Exceptions:

    have —> has
    go —> goes
    do —> does


    Facts or permanent situations

    1. Cows eat grass.
      Cows are eating grass.(X)

    2. water freezes at 0℃.
      Water is freezing at 0℃.(X)

    3. Peter works in an office.
      Peter is working in an office.(X)


    Things that happen regularly, repeatedly or all the time

    1. play football every week.
      I am playing football every week.(X)

    2. Do you go to church every Sunday?
      Are you going to church every Sunday?(X)

    3. My father washes his car once a month.
      My father is washing his car once a month.(X)


    Demonstrations , series of events, commentary


    “I double-click on the next to highlight it and then I click on the delete button…”
    “I am double-clicking…”(X)


    “First I take a bowl and pour a cup of milk into it, next…”
    “First I am taking a bowl…”(X)


    “Gerrard passes to Suarez. Suarez runs with the ball and passes back to Gerrard who shoots and scores!”
    “Gerrard is passing to Suarez…”(X)


    EXCEPTION: Temporary situations


    Where are you going?
    I am going out to a restaurant.
    I am driving my car to the restaurant.
    The waitress is taking my order.
    I am tasting the wine.

    But ,there are a few exceptions:

    I like the wine.
    I am liking the wine.(X)


    posted in English Corner read more
  • C
    CBase

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    Present simple spelling of third person singular form


    Most verbs
    add -s to infinitive

    work —> works
    sit ----> sits
    stay —> stays


    Verbs ending in consonant + y.
    change y to i and add -es

    cry —> cries
    hurry —> hurries
    reply —> replies


    Verbs ending -s, -z, -ch, -sh or -x
    add -es to infinitive

    miss —> misses
    watch —> watches
    push —> pushes


    Exceptions:

    have —> has
    go —> goes
    do —> does


    Facts or permanent situations

    1. Cows eat grass.
      Cows are eating grass.(X)

    2. water freezes at 0℃.
      Water is freezing at 0℃.(X)

    3. Peter works in an office.
      Peter is working in an office.(X)


    Things that happen regularly, repeatedly or all the time

    1. play football every week.
      I am playing football every week.(X)

    2. Do you go to church every Sunday?
      Are you going to church every Sunday?(X)

    3. My father washes his car once a month.
      My father is washing his car once a month.(X)


    Demonstrations , series of events, commentary


    “I double-click on the next to highlight it and then I click on the delete button…”
    “I am double-clicking…”(X)


    “First I take a bowl and pour a cup of milk into it, next…”
    “First I am taking a bowl…”(X)


    “Gerrard passes to Suarez. Suarez runs with the ball and passes back to Gerrard who shoots and scores!”
    “Gerrard is passing to Suarez…”(X)


    posted in English Corner read more
  • C
    CBase

    @cbase said in Present simple- spelling of third person singular form verbs uses-english grammar lession:

    Present simple spelling of third person singular form


    Most verbs
    add -s to infinitive

    work —> works
    sit ----> sits
    stay —> stays


    Verbs ending in consonant + y.
    change y to i and add -es

    cry —> cries
    hurry —> hurries
    reply —> replies


    Verbs ending -s, -z, -ch, -sh or -x
    add -es to infinitive

    miss —> misses
    watch —> watches
    push —> pushes


    Exceptions:

    have —> has
    go —> goes
    do —> does


    Facts or permanent situations

    1. Cows eat grass.
      Cows are eating grass.(X)

    2. water freezes at 0℃.
      Water is freezing at 0℃.(X)

    3. Peter works in an office.
      Peter is working in an office.(X)


    Things that happen regularly, repeatedly or all the time

    1. play football every week.
      I am playing football every week.(X)

    2. Do you go to church every Sunday?
      Are you going to church every Sunday?(X)

    3. My father washes his car once a month.
      My father is washing his car once a month.(X)


    posted in English Corner read more
  • C
    CBase

    Present simple spelling of third person singular form


    Most verbs
    add -s to infinitive

    work —> works
    sit —> sits
    stay —> stays


    Verbs ending in consonant + y.
    change y to i and add -es

    cry —> cries
    hurry —> hurries
    reply —> replies


    Verbs ending -s, -z, -ch, -sh or -x
    add -es to infinitive

    miss —> misses
    watch —> watches
    push —> pushes


    Exceptions:

    have —> has
    go —> goes
    do —> does


    Facts or permanent situations

    1. Cows eat grass.
      Cows are eating grass.(X)

    2. water freezes at 0℃.
      Water is freezing at 0℃.(X)

    3. Peter works in an office.
      Peter is working in an office.(X)

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    CBase

    hi,do you like tea or coffee?
    I like beer.
    haha.
    I want to drink beer. I like beer of Pilsner Urquell.1_1504795311837_Pilsner Urquell.jpg 0_1504795311836_Pilsner Urquell1.jpg
    Do you know where is the beer of Pilsner Urquell?
    Do you find it for beer of Pilsner Urquell?
    Yeah, I explore wine bar near xihu.

    posted in FOOD & WINE read more
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    CBase

    Monday Tuesday Wednesday thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

    posted in English Corner read more
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    CBase

    One thing was certain, that the white kitten had had nothing to do with it:— it was the black kitten’s fault entirely. For the white kitten had been having its face washed by the old cat for the last quarter of an hour (and bearing it pretty well, considering); so you see that it couldn’t have had any hand in the mischief.
    The way Dinah washed her children’s faces was this: first she held the poor thing down by its ear with one paw, and then with the other paw she rubbed its face all over, the wrong way, beginning at the nose: and just now, as I said, she was hard at work on the white kitten, which was lying quite still and trying to purr — no doubt feeling that it was all meant for its good.
    But the black kitten had been finished with earlier in the afternoon, and so, while Alice was sitting curled up in a corner of the great arm-chair, half talking to herself and half asleep, the kitten had been having a grand game of romps with the ball of worsted Alice had been trying to wind up, and had been rolling it up and down till it had all come undone again; and there it was, spread over the hearth-rug, all knots and tangles, with the kitten running after its own tail in the middle.

    ‘Oh, you wicked little thing!’ cried Alice, catching up the kitten, and giving it a little kiss to make it understand that it was in disgrace. ‘Really, Dinah ought to have taught you better manners! You ought, Dinah, you know you ought!’ she added, looking reproachfully at the old cat, and speaking in as cross a voice as she could manage — and then she scrambled back into the arm-chair, taking the kitten and the worsted with her, and began winding up the ball again. But she didn’t get on very fast, as she was talking all the time, sometimes to the kitten, and sometimes to herself. Kitty sat very demurely on her knee, pretending to watch the progress of the winding, and now and then putting out one paw and gently touching the ball, as if it would be glad to help, if it might. ‘Do you know what to-morrow is, Kitty?’ Alice began. ‘You’d have guessed if you’d been up in the window with me — only Dinah was making you tidy, so you couldn’t. I was watching the boys getting in sticks for the bonfire — and it wants plenty of sticks, Kitty! Only it got so cold, and it snowed so, they had to leave off. Never mind, Kitty, we’ll go and see the bonfire to-morrow.’ Here Alice wound two or three turns of the worsted round the kitten’s neck, just to see how it would look: this led to a scramble, in which the ball rolled down upon the floor, and yards and yards of it got unwound again.

    ‘Do you know, I was so angry, Kitty,’ Alice went on as soon as they were comfortably settled again, ‘when I saw all the mischief you had been doing, I was very nearly opening the window, and putting you out into the snow! And you’d have deserved it, you little mischievous darling! What have you got to say for yourself? Now don’t interrupt me!’ she went on, holding up one finger. ‘I’m going to tell you all your faults. Number one: you squeaked twice while Dinah was washing your face this morning. Now you can’t deny it, Kitty: I heard you! What’s that you say?’ (pretending that the kitten was speaking.) ‘Her paw went into your eye? Well, that’s your fault, for keeping your eyes open — if you’d shut them tight up, it wouldn’t have happened. Now don’t make any more excuses, but listen! Number two: you pulled Snowdrop away by the tail just as I had put down the saucer of milk before her! What, you were thirsty, were you? How do you know she wasn’t thirsty too? Now for number three: you unwound every bit of the worsted while I wasn’t looking!
    ‘That’s three faults, Kitty, and you’ve not been punished for any of them yet. You know I’m saving up all your punishments for Wednesday week — Suppose they had saved up all my punishments!’ she went on, talking more to herself than the kitten. ‘What would they do at the end of a year? I should be sent to prison, I suppose, when the day came. Or — let me see — suppose each punishment was to be going without a dinner: then, when the miserable day came, I should have to go without fifty dinners at once! Well, I shouldn’t mind that much! I’d far rather go without them than eat them! ‘Do you hear the snow against the window-panes, Kitty? How nice and soft it sounds! Just as if some one was kissing the window all over outside. I wonder if the snow loves the trees and fields, that it kisses them so gently? And then it covers them up snug, you know, with a white quilt; and perhaps it says, “Go to sleep, darlings, till the summer comes again.” And when they wake up in the summer, Kitty, they dress themselves all in green, and dance about — whenever the wind blows — oh, that’s very pretty!’ cried Alice, dropping the ball of worsted to clap her hands. ‘And I do so wish it was true! I’m sure the woods look sleepy in the autumn, when the leaves are getting brown. ‘Kitty, can you play chess? Now, don’t smile, my dear, I’m asking it seriously. Because, when we were playing just now, you watched just as if you understood it: and when I said “Check!” you purred! Well, it was a nice check, Kitty, and really I might have won, if it hadn’t been for that nasty Knight, that came wiggling down among my pieces. Kitty, dear, let’s pretend —’ And here I wish I could tell you half the things Alice used to say, beginning with her favourite phrase ‘Let’s pretend.’ She had had quite a long argument with her sister only the day before — all because Alice had begun with ‘Let’s pretend we’re kings and queens;’ and her sister, who liked being very exact, had argued that they couldn’t, because there were only two of them, and Alice had been reduced at last to say, ‘Well, you can be one of them then, and I’ll be all the rest.’ And once she had really frightened her old nurse by shouting suddenly in her ear, ‘Nurse! Do let’s pretend that I’m a hungry hyaena, and you’re a bone.’ But this is taking us away from Alice’s speech to the kitten. ‘Let’s pretend that you’re the Red Queen, Kitty! Do you know, I think if you sat up and folded your arms, you’d look exactly like her. Now do try, there’s a dear!’ And Alice got the Red Queen off the table, and set it up before the kitten as a model for it to imitate: however, the thing didn’t succeed, principally, Alice said, because the kitten wouldn’t fold its arms properly. So, to punish it, she held it up to the Looking-glass, that it might see how sulky it was —‘and if you’re not good directly,’ she added, ‘I’ll put you through into Looking-glass House. How would you like that?’
    ‘Now, if you’ll only attend, Kitty, and not talk so much, I’ll tell you all my ideas about Looking-glass House. First, there’s the room you can see through the glass — that’s just the same as our drawing room, only the things go the other way. I can see all of it when I get upon a chair — all but the bit behind the fireplace. Oh! I do so wish I could see that bit! I want so much to know whether they’ve a fire in the winter: you never can tell, you know, unless our fire smokes, and then smoke comes up in that room too — but that may be only pretence, just to make it look as if they had a fire. Well then, the books are something like our books, only the words go the wrong way; I know that, because I’ve held up one of our books to the glass, and then they hold up one in the other room. ‘How would you like to live in Looking-glass House, Kitty? I wonder if they’d give you milk in there? Perhaps Looking-glass milk isn’t good to drink — But oh, Kitty! now we come to the passage. You can just see a little peep of the passage in Looking-glass House, if you leave the door of our drawing-room wide open: and it’s very like our passage as far as you can see, only you know it may be quite different on beyond. Oh, Kitty! how nice it would be if we could only get through into Looking-glass House! I’m sure it’s got, oh! such beautiful things in it! Let’s pretend there’s a way of getting through into it, somehow, Kitty. Let’s pretend the glass has got all soft like gauze, so that we can get through. Why, it’s turning into a sort of mist now, I declare! It’ll be easy enough to get through —’ She was up on the chimney-piece while she said this, though she hardly knew how she had got there. And certainly the glass was beginning to melt away, just like a bright silvery mist.

    In another moment Alice was through the glass, and had jumped lightly down into the Looking-glass room. The very first thing she did was to look whether there was a fire in the fireplace, and she was quite pleased to find that there was a real one, blazing away as brightly as the one she had left behind. ‘So I shall be as warm here as I was in the old room,’ thought Alice: ‘warmer, in fact, because there’ll be no one here to scold me away from the fire. Oh, what fun it’ll be, when they see me through the glass in here, and can’t get at me!’

    Then she began looking about, and noticed that what could be seen from the old room was quite common and uninteresting, but that all the rest was as different as possible. For instance, the pictures on the wall next the fire seemed to be all alive, and the very clock on the chimney-piece (you know you can only see the back of it in the Looking-glass) had got the face of a little old man, and grinned at her.
    ‘They don’t keep this room so tidy as the other,’ Alice thought to herself, as she noticed several of the chessmen down in the hearth among the cinders: but in another moment, with a little ‘Oh!’ of surprise, she was down on her hands and knees watching them. The chessmen were walking about, two and two!

    ‘Here are the Red King and the Red Queen,’ Alice said (in a whisper, for fear of frightening them), ‘and there are the White King and the White Queen sitting on the edge of the shovel — and here are two castles walking arm in arm — I don’t think they can hear me,’ she went on, as she put her head closer down, ‘and I’m nearly sure they can’t see me. I feel somehow as if I were invisible —’ Here something began squeaking on the table behind Alice, and made her turn her head just in time to see one of the White Pawns roll over and begin kicking: she watched it with great curiosity to see what would happen next.
    ‘It is the voice of my child!’ the White Queen cried out as she rushed past the King, so violently that she knocked him over among the cinders. ‘My precious Lily! My imperial kitten!’ and she began scrambling wildly up the side of the fender. ‘Imperial fiddlestick!’ said the King, rubbing his nose, which had been hurt by the fall. He had a right to be a little annoyed with the Queen, for he was covered with ashes from head to foot. Alice was very anxious to be of use, and, as the poor little Lily was nearly screaming herself into a fit, she hastily picked up the Queen and set her on the table by the side of her noisy little daughter.
    The Queen gasped, and sat down: the rapid journey through the air had quite taken away her breath and for a minute or two she could do nothing but hug the little Lily in silence. As soon as she had recovered her breath a little, she called out to the White King, who was sitting sulkily among the ashes, ‘Mind the volcano!’
    ‘What volcano?’ said the King, looking up anxiously into the fire, as if he thought that was the most likely place to find one. ‘Blew — me — up,’ panted the Queen, who was still a little out of breath. ‘Mind you come up — the regular way — don’t get blown up!’ Alice watched the White King as he slowly struggled up from bar to bar, till at last she said, ‘Why, you’ll be hours and hours getting to the table, at that rate. I’d far better help you, hadn’t I?’ But the King took no notice of the question: it was quite clear that he could neither hear her nor see her.
    So Alice picked him up very gently, and lifted him across more slowly than she had lifted the Queen, that she mightn’t take his breath away: but, before she put him on the table, she thought she might as well dust him a little, he was so covered with ashes.

    She said afterwards that she had never seen in all her life such a face as the King made, when he found himself held in the air by an invisible hand, and being dusted: he was far too much astonished to cry out, but his eyes and his mouth went on getting larger and larger, and rounder and rounder, till her hand shook so with laughing that she nearly let him drop upon the floor.
    ‘Oh! please don’t make such faces, my dear!’ she cried out, quite forgetting that the King couldn’t hear her. ‘You make me laugh so that I can hardly hold you! And don’t keep your mouth so wide open! All the ashes will get into it — there, now I think you’re tidy enough!’ she added, as she smoothed his hair, and set him upon the table near the Queen. The King immediately fell flat on his back, and lay perfectly still: and Alice was a little alarmed at what she had done, and went round the room to see if she could find any water to throw over him. However, she could find nothing but a bottle of ink, and when she got back with it she found he had recovered, and he and the Queen were talking together in a frightened whisper — so low, that Alice could hardly hear what they said.
    The King was saying, ‘I assure, you my dear, I turned cold to the very ends of my whiskers!’
    To which the Queen replied, ‘You haven’t got any whiskers.’
    ‘The horror of that moment,’ the King went on, ‘I shall never, never forget!’ ‘You will, though,’ the Queen said, ‘if you don’t make a memorandum of it.’ Alice looked on with great interest as the King took an enormous memorandum-book out of his pocket, and began writing. A sudden thought struck her, and she took hold of the end of the pencil, which came some way over his shoulder, and began writing for him.
    The poor King looked puzzled and unhappy, and struggled with the pencil for some time without saying anything; but Alice was too strong for him, and at last he panted out, ‘My dear! I really must get a thinner pencil. I can’t manage this one a bit; it writes all manner of things that I don’t intend —’
    ‘What manner of things?’ said the Queen, looking over the book (in which Alice had put ‘the White Knight is sliding down the poker. He balances very badly’) ‘That’s not a memorandum of your feelings!’

    Lewis Carroll
    My real name is Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, but people call me Lewis. I’m an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon and photographer. People know me best for writing about Alice.

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    I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.

    Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.

    But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we’ve come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.

    In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the “unalienable Rights” of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds.”

    But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we’ve come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.

    We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God’s children.

    It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

    But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force.

    The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom.

    We cannot walk alone.

    And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead.

    We cannot turn back.

    There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, “When will you be satisfied?” We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating: “For Whites Only.” We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until “justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream.”

    I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest – quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.

    Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends.

    And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

    I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”

    I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

    I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

    I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

    I have a dream today!

    I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of “interposition” and “nullification” – one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

    I have a dream today!

    I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; “and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.”

    This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South with.

    With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

    And this will be the day – this will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning:

    My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing.

    Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim’s pride,

    From every mountainside, let freedom ring!

    And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.

    And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.

    Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.

    Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

    Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.

    Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.

    But not only that:

    Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.

    Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.

    Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi.

    From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

    And when this happens, and when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual:

    Free at last! Free at last!

    Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!

    Martin Luther King
    An American pastor, activist, humanitarian. People know me for leading the African-American Civil Rights movement using nonviolent civil disobedience.

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